2 600 Words Essays About U.S History

History – American history

kindly follow the requirements.

Chapter 19

The Vitality and Turmoil of Urban Life, 1877–1920

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Ch.19: Urban Life, 1877–1920

New environment create many changes

Cities = hope, conflict, adjustment

Esp. for “New Immigrants”

51% of Americans urban (1920)

City central to US life

Source of diversity and pluralism:

class, race, ethnicity

New sources of entertainment (vaudeville)

*

Fig. 19-CO, p. 514

“Houdini’s Escape Act.” High above Broadway and 46th Street in New York City, Harry Houdini, the world-famous immigrant-American escape artist, hangs upside down while bound in a straitjacket. Crowds watch breathlessly, wondering whether or how he will free himself. New people, bustling cities, mass entertainment, and the quest for freedom symbolized by Houdini’s act characterized American society at the end of the nineteenth century and beginning of the twentieth.

p. 516

I. Industrial Development

Cities = centers of industrial growth

capital

workers

consumers

Most have variety of factories

Often specialize in one product:

clothing, NYC

Shape of cities change:

earlier cities compact

sprawl start late 1800s

*

II. Mechanization of

Mass Transportation & Suburbanization

Allow middle-class and rich to:

escape congested urban core

commute for work, shopping, etc.

Fares too expensive for workers

Cable cars, 1880s; then electric streetcars

Some build elevated trains and/or subways

Electric interurban rails link nearby cities:

accelerate suburb grow

Some businesses move to suburbs

*

p. 518

Electric trolley cars and other forms of mass transit enabled middle-class people such as these women and men to reside on the urban outskirts and ride into the city center for work, shopping, and entertainment.

III. Beginnings of Urban Sprawl

Urban growth centrifugal and centripetal

Growth unplanned; guided by profit:

little attention to parks, traffic, etc.

Urban core = work zone

with sprawl, cities separate:

home and work

rich and poor

*

IV. Urban Population Growth

1870: 10 million

1920: 54 million (540% increase)

Some growth = annexing nearby areas

Biggest factor:

migration from countryside

immigration from abroad

Rural populace decline:

hurt by low crop prices and high debts

move for jobs and escape isolation

*

p. 520

Along with mass-produced consumer goods, such as clothing and household items, Sears, Roebuck and Company marketed architectural plans for middle-class housing. The “tiny house design,” published in one of the company’s catalogs, illustrates the layout and finished look of the kind of housing built on urban outskirts in the early twentieth century.

IV. Urban Population Growth (cont.)

1,000s of rural African Americans migrate seeking opportunities:

discrimination limit them to service jobs

more openings for black women than men

Many Hispanics in West migrate:

take over unskilled jobs (construction)

Most newcomers = immigrants:

26 million (1870–1920)

most go to cities

*

V. Foreign Immigration: Immigrants the Children of Capitalism

Some from Canada, Asia, Latin America

Most immigrants from Europe

Part of worldwide movement

Causes:

The Growth of world capitalism resulted in the

emergence of a worldwide market for labor

Lower entrance requirements in terms of capital ad

skills

Population pressure

Land redistribution/Concentration

Industrialization

Religious persecution

Communications and transportation revolution

*

*

David Montgomery on Global Integration in the Late 19th Century

“By the 1870s industrial society had generated distinct but interlocking geographic regions that were to remain essentially fixed until World War I. An industrial core, throbbing with manufacturing activity at continually rising levels, was roughly bounded by Chicago and St. Louis in the West; by Toronto, Glasgow, and Berlin in the North; by Warsaw, Lodz, and later Budapest (as rather isolated outposts) in the East, and by Milan, Barcelona, Richmond, and Louisville in the South. Surrounding that core, and indeed enveloping its urban outposts, lay the vast agricultural domain in which capitalist development shattered long established patterns of economic activity, without cultivating more than scattered pockets of extractive and processing industry. “

*

p. 521

Fresh off the boat and wearing homeland clothing, immigrants pose for a photograph outside the federal immigration station at Ellis Island, offshore from New York City. Situated in the shadow of the Statue of Liberty, Ellis Island immigration officials processed millions of newcomers such as these, asking them questions about their background and examining them for health problems.

VI. The New Immigration

Earlier, most European immigrants from northern and western Europe (Map 19.2)

By 1900, shift to south and east Europe

Greater diversity in language, religion, ethnicity, and customs to USA

Foreign-born and native-born (foreign parents) = majority in many cities (Figure 19.1)

Many native-born whites (old immigrant heritage) resent “new” immigrants

*

Encountering the Color Line in the Everyday: Italians in Interwar Chicago, Thomas A. Guglielmo

“How exactly did these Italians come to believe so deeply in ‘their’ whiteness and their fundamental difference from blackness and, at other times, brownness and yellowness-especially given that these identities and categories held limited meaning (if any) prior to migration in Italy or during their early years of settlement in the United States? How did Italians come to believe that “their” whiteness gave them special access to neighborhoods, public housing projects, and even cooking classes? Since all social identities and boundaries must be learned, how exactly did this color learning take place? P. 46

Map 19-2, p. 523

Map 19.2: Sources of European-Born Population, 1900 and 1920.

In just a few decades, the proportion of European immigrants to the United States who came from northern and western Europe decreased (Ireland and Germany) or remained relatively stable (England and Scandinavia), while the proportion from eastern and southern Europe increased dramatically.

Rise of Manufacturing in Early 20th Century

migrants from Southern and Eastern Europe:

Establishment of Occupational beachheads: Garment, meatpacking, construction & transportation

Group rather than individual movement

Factories (sweatshops) in ethnic neighborhoods:

Little Italy, Lower East Side etc.

Worker solidarity –partly based on ethnic solidarity

*

Early 21st century: new economy

New migrations from Caribbean, Asia and Africa (often irregular)

Production jobs outsourced: Mexico, China, Brazil, Bangladesh, India, etc.

New jobs in retailing, personal services, etc.

Sub-contracting, casual work

Fragmentation of ethnic solidarity

Map 19-1, p. 519

Map 19.1: Urbanization, 1880 and 1920.

In 1880, the vast majority of states were still heavily rural. By 1920, only a few had less than 20 percent of their population living in cities.

Map 19-1a, p. 519

Map 19.1: Urbanization, 1880 and 1920.

In 1880, the vast majority of states were still heavily rural. By 1920, only a few had less than 20 percent of their population living in cities.

Map 19-1b, p. 519

Map 19.1: Urbanization, 1880 and 1920.

In 1880, the vast majority of states were still heavily rural. By 1920, only a few had less than 20 percent of their population living in cities.

VII. Geographic and Social Mobility

Newcomers cope by relying on family:

pool resources, help with jobs

Constant movement:

within city or to another city

Some find success; others keep moving

White male occupational mobility exist:

white-collar jobs

small businesses

Few rag-to-riches successes

Most rich start with affluence

*

p. 522

The Caribbean as well as Europe sent immigrants to the United States. Hopeful that they were leaving their homeland of Guadeloupe for a better life, these women were perhaps unprepared for the disadvantages they faced as blacks, foreigners, and women.

VII. Geographic and Social Mobility (cont.)

Moderate advance for some white men, esp. native-born

20% of manual workers rise to non-manual work within 10 years

Some downward mobility also occur

Esp. owners of small businesses

Little mobility:

women

Minorities

*

VII. Geographic and Social Mobility (cont.)

Acquiring property difficult:

loans = high interest with short repayment

36% of urban Americans own home (1900)

Higher than most Western nations

Gap between rich and poor widen

Possibility of mobility = safety valve

Relieve some tensions/frustrations

*

p. 525

Those who wished to Americanize immigrants believed that public schools could provide the best setting for assimilation. This 1917 poster from the Cleveland Board of Education and the Cleveland Americanization Committee used the languages most common to the new immigrants—Slovene, Italian, Polish, Hungarian, and Yiddish—as well as English, to invite newcomers to free classes where they could learn “the language of America” and “citizenship.”

VIII. Cultural Retention and Change

Peopling of cities = dynamic process

Immigrants initially live in ethnic enclaves

Try to preserve traditions

Crowding/ movement force interaction

In large cities, neighborhoods = multiethnic “urban borderlands”

White New Immigrants suffer prejudice

Less than blacks, Asians, Hispanics

*

IX. Racial Segregation and Violence

White immigrants leave enclaves over time

Not so for Afro-Americans because of racism

Segregated black ghettos develop:

churches central

tension with surrounding whites

race riots (Wilmington, Atlanta, East St. Louis)

Asians suffer segregation, violence, and discrimination (e.g., Chinese Exclusion Act of 1882)

Mexicans lose land:

whites isolate them into barrios

*

THE GREAT BLACK MIGRATION

FIRST (1815-1890)- NORTWESTERN EUROPE

English, Irish, Germans, Scandinavian

15 million

SECOND (1890-1914) SOUTHERN AND EASTERN EUROPE

Russian, Jewish, Italian, Poles,

Lithuanian, Turkish, Romanian

15 million

THIRD (1914-Present) DEVELOPING COUNTRIES OF LATIN

AMERICA, ASIA, AFRICA AND THE MIDDLE EAST

THREE GREAT MIGRATORY WAVES (1815-2010)

*

X. Cultural Adaptation

Diverse resources and orientations led to various rates of attainment and participation

Immigrants try to keep native language:

but learn English at school, at work

Kinship the core component of immigrant groups

Music reflect cultural interaction

Religiously, USA increase diversity

More Catholics, Jews, etc.

Some Catholics and Jews accommodate

Others resist:

Conservative vs. Reform Judaism

*

XI. Living Conditions in

Inner City

Massive influx = immense problems:

Overcrowding, disease, poverty

Some improvement overtime

Many problems remain

Biggest problem = lack of housing

High rents force 2–3 families to share 1-family tenement apartments (esp. NYC)

Tiny rooms lack windows, water, safe heat

Result = disease, vermin, filth

*

p. 529

Inner-city dwellers used not only indoor space as efficiently as possible, but also what little outdoor space was available to them. Scores of families living in this cramped block of six-story tenements in New York strung clotheslines behind the buildings. Notice that there is virtually no space between buildings—only rooms at the front and back received daylight and fresh air.

XII. Housing Reform;

New Home Technology

NY regulate new buildings; not existing structures

Jacob (Walter) Riis and Veiller advocate model tenements

Even reformers reject public housing

New systems of heat, light, and plumbing benefit upper and middle classes first

Slowly others gain access to gas, electricity, water

Rich create new private spaces in home

*

Jacob (Walter) Riis, 1849-1914

A ‘muckraking journalist’ – serve the public interest by exposing issues of corruption and unsanitary conditions

Identified that the printed word alone was not sufficient to provoke a reaction

Photography that has the direct motive to bring about positive social change

Raising awareness

Awaking consciousness of society

Photographs are direct and penetrating, will impact the viewer and their lives

Photographs employed as evidence

‘It was a loosing fight until conscious joined forces with fear and self-interest against it.’

Works by Riis, 1849-1914

1890- ‘How The Other Half Lives’

1892- ‘The Children of the Poor’

Sequel to ‘How the Other Half Lives’

1902- ‘Battle With The Slum’

Greater focus on the tenements

‘Either we wipe out the slum, or it wipes out us.’

1919 – ‘Neighbors: Life Stories of the Other Half’

Published After Riis died

XIII. Sanitation, Construction;

Urban Poverty

because of germ theory, cities improve water and sewer systems

Street paving, steel-frame construction, elevators, and steam-heat improve cities

Still, many working families poor:

seasonal nature of work

boom/bust cycles

Americans debate whether to help poor

*

p. 531

This scene, captured by a Philadelphia photographer sent to record the extent of trash that was littering city streets and sidewalks, illustrates the problems of disposal confronting inner-city, immigrant neighborhoods and the necessity for some form of public service to remove the refuse. Seemingly oblivious to the debris, the residents pose for the photographer.

p. 532

(top) As the human and horse populations of cities grew, garbage, litter, and manure became nagging inconveniences and health hazards. In 1868, street sweepers, hired to clean the streets, often consisted of crews hired by political bosses and were required to report to a supervisor for morning roll call.

(bottom) By the early 1900s, the profession of sanitary engineer became an important one to the urban environment.

XIV. Poverty Relief

Traditional belief:

poor = lazy and immoral

aid create dependence

Some reformers argue urban environment contribute:

advocate government action (safety and health laws)

origins of later Progressive movement

In late 1800s, most wealthy reject reform

*

XV. Crime and Violence

Homicides and other crimes (theft) increase

More reporting may explain growth

Nativists blame immigrants

But native-born also participate

*

XVI. Managing the City

Governments slowly address problems

Many city governments lack organization

Clean water/ waste disposal = urgent:

lack causes disease (yellow fever, typhoid)

Engineers:

purify water with filters and chlorine

improve: waste disposal

street cleaning and lighting

construction and fire protection

*

XVII. Law Enforcement

Professional police develop, post-1850

Police often exhibit:

poor training

corruption

ethnic/racial prejudice

Different groups want different kinds of law enforcement

Esp. customer-oriented crimes

*

XVIII. Political Machines

Arise from confusion of politics

Seek office for rewards (bribery, graft)

Also help urban newcomers

Machines: organizations with popular base

Boss = professional politician:

often an immigrant

broker diverse interest groups

for votes, help with jobs, food, law, etc.

*

XVIII. Political Machines (cont.)

NYC’s Tammany Hall mix personal gain with public accomplishments:

profit from control of contracts and jobs

construct vital public works

Bribes and kickbacks inflate costs

Also profit from illegal actions (gambling)

Like business leaders, bosses:

use politics for self-interest

reflect racial/ethnic bias

*

Tammany Hall, 1786-1932 ?

Tammany and other urban political machines provided often served as a rudimentary public welfare system.

The patronage Tammany Hall provided to immigrants, many of whom lived in extreme poverty and received little government assistance: food, coal, rent money or a job.

Served as a social integrator for immigrants by familiarizing them with American society and its political institutions and by helping them become naturalized citizens.

XIX. Civic Reform

Middle/upper class oppose bosses:

upset by corruption and taxes

Claim experts (city managers and city commissions) = efficient government

Little success against bosses

Not realize urbanities loyal to boss because boss help with problems

A few reform mayors address poverty:

Detroit’s Pingree

*

XX. Social Reform

Young, middle class, often female

Try to help newcomers:

with problems (housing)

and Americanize them (ed)

Settlement houses: Jane Addams and Hull House

Advocate government action

Vanguard of later Progressive reform

*

Hull House, 1885

First Social Settlement in Chicago

Classes in literature, history, art, domestic activities

(such as sewing), and many other subjects.

Volunteers acted as midwives, saved babies from

neglect, prepared the dead for burial, nursed the

sick, and sheltered domestic violence victims.

First Social Settlement with men and women

“residents”

First public baths in Chicago

First public playground in Chicago

Hull House, 1885

First gymnasium for the public in Chicago

First little theater in the United States

First citizenship preparation classes

First public kitchen in Chicago

First college extension courses in Chicago

First free art exhibits in Chicago

At the state level Hull House influenced legislation on child labor laws, occupational safety and health provisions, compulsory education, immigrant rights, and pension laws

XXI. The City Beautiful Movement

Architects try to make cities attractive and efficient

Parks, wider streets

Displace poor in process

Reformers seek to improve cities, but

Display naiveté and insensitivity

*

p. 536

As cities grew and became increasingly congested, children in immigrant and working-class neighborhoods used streets and sidewalks as play sites. Activities of youngsters such as these, playing unsupervised in front of a Polish saloon, prompted adults to create playgrounds, clubs, and other places where they could protect children’s safety and innocence and where they could ensure that play would be orderly and obedient.

XXII. Family Life

Family remain primary social unit

Help members with urban-industrial problems

Most households = nuclear family

Family size shrink with declining birth rate

Stages of life (youth, parenthood, old age) become more distinct

Number of unmarried people increase

Boarding = common practice

Holidays stress family (Mother’s Day, 1914)

*

p. 537

Amusement centers, such as Luna Park at Coney Island in New York City, became common and appealing features of the new leisure culture. One of the most popular Coney Island attractions was a ride called Shooting the Chutes, which resembled modern-day giant water slides. In 1904, Luna Park staged an outrageous stunt of an elephant sliding down the chute. The creature survived, apparently unfazed.

XXIII. The New Leisure

and Mass Culture

Leisure time expand; become big business

Sports: baseball and football for men; women’s basketball; croquet and cycling for both

Popular drama, musical comedy, vaudeville:

provide escape

reinforce bias

Movies, newspapers, magazines = profitable

Comstock try to stamp out “indecency”

Mass culture, but USA still pluralistic

*

p. 540

Eva Tanguay was one of the most popular vaudeville performers of her era. A buxom singer who billed herself as “the girl who made vaudeville famous,” Tanguay dressed in elaborate costumes and sang suggestive songs, many of which were written just for her and epitomized her carefree style.

p. 541

Dick Merriwell and his brother, Frank, were fictional heroes of hundreds of stories written in the early 1900s by Burt Standish (the pen name used by Gilbert Patten). In a series of adventures, mostly involving sports, these popular character models used their physical skills, valor, and moral virtue to lead by example, accomplish the impossible, and influence others to behave in an upstanding way.

Summary: Discuss Links to the World and Legacy

Link of USA and Japan via sports?

Baseball differences between Japan and USA?

As with urban USA, new links, yet diversity

Children and mass-produced toys as legacy?

Changing concepts of childhood?

Gender roles?

Links between toys and advertising/ mass media?

*

p. 538

Replete with bats, gloves, and uniforms, this Japanese baseball team of 1890 very much resembles its American counterpart of that era. The Japanese adopted baseball soon after Americans became involved in their country but also added their cultural qualities to the game.

*

*

“Houdini’s Escape Act.” High above Broadway and 46th Street in New York City, Harry Houdini, the world-famous immigrant-American escape artist, hangs upside down while bound in a straitjacket. Crowds watch breathlessly, wondering whether or how he will free himself. New people, bustling cities, mass entertainment, and the quest for freedom symbolized by Houdini’s act characterized American society at the end of the nineteenth century and beginning of the twentieth.

*

*

Electric trolley cars and other forms of mass transit enabled middle-class people such as these women and men to reside on the urban outskirts and ride into the city center for work, shopping, and entertainment.

*

*

Along with mass-produced consumer goods, such as clothing and household items, Sears, Roebuck and Company marketed architectural plans for middle-class housing. The “tiny house design,” published in one of the company’s catalogs, illustrates the layout and finished look of the kind of housing built on urban outskirts in the early twentieth century.

*

*

*

*

Fresh off the boat and wearing homeland clothing, immigrants pose for a photograph outside the federal immigration station at Ellis Island, offshore from New York City. Situated in the shadow of the Statue of Liberty, Ellis Island immigration officials processed millions of newcomers such as these, asking them questions about their background and examining them for health problems.

*

Map 19.2: Sources of European-Born Population, 1900 and 1920.

In just a few decades, the proportion of European immigrants to the United States who came from northern and western Europe decreased (Ireland and Germany) or remained relatively stable (England and Scandinavia), while the proportion from eastern and southern Europe increased dramatically.

*

Map 19.1: Urbanization, 1880 and 1920.

In 1880, the vast majority of states were still heavily rural. By 1920, only a few had less than 20 percent of their population living in cities.

Map 19.1: Urbanization, 1880 and 1920.

In 1880, the vast majority of states were still heavily rural. By 1920, only a few had less than 20 percent of their population living in cities.

Map 19.1: Urbanization, 1880 and 1920.

In 1880, the vast majority of states were still heavily rural. By 1920, only a few had less than 20 percent of their population living in cities.

*

The Caribbean as well as Europe sent immigrants to the United States. Hopeful that they were leaving their homeland of Guadeloupe for a better life, these women were perhaps unprepared for the disadvantages they faced as blacks, foreigners, and women.

*

*

Those who wished to Americanize immigrants believed that public schools could provide the best setting for assimilation. This 1917 poster from the Cleveland Board of Education and the Cleveland Americanization Committee used the languages most common to the new immigrants—Slovene, Italian, Polish, Hungarian, and Yiddish—as well as English, to invite newcomers to free classes where they could learn “the language of America” and “citizenship.”

*

*

*

*

*

Inner-city dwellers used not only indoor space as efficiently as possible, but also what little outdoor space was available to them. Scores of families living in this cramped block of six-story tenements in New York strung clotheslines behind the buildings. Notice that there is virtually no space between buildings—only rooms at the front and back received daylight and fresh air.

*

*

This scene, captured by a Philadelphia photographer sent to record the extent of trash that was littering city streets and sidewalks, illustrates the problems of disposal confronting inner-city, immigrant neighborhoods and the necessity for some form of public service to remove the refuse. Seemingly oblivious to the debris, the residents pose for the photographer.

(top) As the human and horse populations of cities grew, garbage, litter, and manure became nagging inconveniences and health hazards. In 1868, street sweepers, hired to clean the streets, often consisted of crews hired by political bosses and were required to report to a supervisor for morning roll call.

(bottom) By the early 1900s, the profession of sanitary engineer became an important one to the urban environment.

*

*

*

*

*

*

*

*

*

As cities grew and became increasingly congested, children in immigrant and working-class neighborhoods used streets and sidewalks as play sites. Activities of youngsters such as these, playing unsupervised in front of a Polish saloon, prompted adults to create playgrounds, clubs, and other places where they could protect children’s safety and innocence and where they could ensure that play would be orderly and obedient.

*

Amusement centers, such as Luna Park at Coney Island in New York City, became common and appealing features of the new leisure culture. One of the most popular Coney Island attractions was a ride called Shooting the Chutes, which resembled modern-day giant water slides. In 1904, Luna Park staged an outrageous stunt of an elephant sliding down the chute. The creature survived, apparently unfazed.

*

Eva Tanguay was one of the most popular vaudeville performers of her era. A buxom singer who billed herself as “the girl who made vaudeville famous,” Tanguay dressed in elaborate costumes and sang suggestive songs, many of which were written just for her and epitomized her carefree style.

Dick Merriwell and his brother, Frank, were fictional heroes of hundreds of stories written in the early 1900s by Burt Standish (the pen name used by Gilbert Patten). In a series of adventures, mostly involving sports, these popular character models used their physical skills, valor, and moral virtue to lead by example, accomplish the impossible, and influence others to behave in an upstanding way.

*

Replete with bats, gloves, and uniforms, this Japanese baseball team of 1890 very much resembles its American counterpart of that era. The Japanese adopted baseball soon after Americans became involved in their country but also added their cultural qualities to the game.