Erik Erikson Erikson identifies eight ages of man, and that each person must resolve the conflict that arises in each age. The first stage is Trust versus Mistrust. Please identify what the outcomes are for trust and mistrust, as we discussed. Why are these outcomes important for understanding children’s development? Describe Erikson’s third Stage of Development, the important learning that needs to take place in this stage, and how adults can best support it. Overall, what do the Eight Ages of Man have to tell educators about the importance of safety and security for young children? Why is this so critical to human development? Jean Piaget Name and outline the Piagetian stages that apply to children between birth and age six. Then, based on the ideas of Piaget’s theory, discuss how the children learn best during these periods of development, and why. Piaget wrote that children construct knowledge. His work is described as a Co​‌‍‍‍‌‍‍‌‍‌‌‍‍‍‌‍‌‌‌‍​nstructivist theory. What did Piaget mean by children constructing their knowledge? How does this understanding influence a teacher’s educational practice? Lev Vygotsky In our class discussion of Vygotsky and in the readings, Vygotsky’s concept of the Zone of Proximal Development is described as a key factor in development. How would you describe this concept to someone who was not familiar with it? Vygotsky believed that children’s cognitive development took place not only as a result of physical development, but also through social interactions. Describe how important characteristics of a Montessori environment influence social interactions, and hence, children’s development. The concept of “scaffolding,” — the process of an adult or older peer providing assistance to a young learner, and then, over time, reducing that assistance — was introduced in the reading and in class discussions. How does “scaffolding” take place in a Montessori environment, and what are some examples of Montessori material presentations that scaffold childre

Maria Montessori Dr. Montessori’s work was both revolutionary, and built upon the theories and ideas of others. In the reading material and in class, her concept of Sensitive Periods has been discussed. What are Sensitive Periods? And how do they relate to Piaget’s stages of development? Many of the classic Montessori materials are designed to exacting specifications. The use of these materials allows the children to discover or encounter their own errors. Dr. Montessori referred to this as ‘control of error.’ Discuss the importance of control of error in learning. How does this relate to the use of rewards and punishments, or teacher praise and correction, in a Montessori learning environment? Two key concepts for Dr. Montessori were independence and concentration. How would you define them? And h​‌‍‍‍‌‍‍‌‍‌‌‍‍‍‌‍‌‌‌‍​ow do they relate to one another?