1. What are Klockars’s descriptions of police authority, power, persuasion, and force?

2. Describe Wilson’s typologies of police, and explain how each might use discretion.

3. Describe the elements of the formal code of ethics, and contrast them with the values of the police subculture.

4. Describe the elements of the police subculture.

5. Explain why some people think the police subculture is breaking down.