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 Diane Norton 

week 3 main discussion pain

The guidelines of the American Pain Society for the management of pain, postop pain should be assessed at regular intervals which are dependent on how severe the pain is and the clinical situation of the patient (Jacqueline FM, 2012).  Effective communication between the healthcare provider and the patient is essential for appropriate pain relief (Jacqueline FM, 2012).  The numeric pain rating scale is the most utilized indicator of pain. The scale ranges from 0 for no pain and 10 for the worst imaginable pain experienced. Fibers in the skin display a sensory response to the information that is received in response to chemical, thermal, and mechanical stimuli (Hammer & McPhee, 2019).  Intense pain comes from stimulation of the nerve endings (Hammer  & McPhee, 2019).

     Acute pain lasts less than 3 months, has a protective mechanism that alerts the individual a condition or experience causing immediate harm to the body, motivates the individual to react to it (Huether, & McCance, 2017).  The autonomic nervous system is stimulated and results in physical symptoms including tachycardia, hypertension, diaphoresis, and dilated pupils (Huether & McCance, 2017).  There are different types of acute pain which include somatic pain that rises from the skin, visceral pain from the lining that surrounds the internal organs, and referred pain which is felt from a separate cause (Huether & McCance, 2017). 

     Chronic pain generally lasts greater than 6 months, has no purpose of protection and is poorly understood (Huether & McCance, 2017). 

     Referred pain is either acute or chronic.  The healthcare provider is knowledgeable of the different causes of pain and injury and has the ability to diagnose the cause.  A stress fracture of the hip may cause intense pain in the back or leg.  The healthcare provider knows multiple causes and types of pain to correctly identify the trigger (Huether & McCance, 2017). 

     Acute pain resolves when the patient injury has resolved.   The individual experiencing chronic pain has no resolution.  Good coping skills and support systems along with a willingness to attempt alternate treatment plans will have a greater tolerance for chronic pain.  Conflict with the healthcare provider ensues because there is no gauge for the pain and the patients suffer from psychological issues with a decrease in function. Chronic pain suffers experience different pain scenarios and is not well-treated.  After a surgical procedure, the patient requires time to heal and pain medication prescribed is known.

                                                                                                                                                                   References

 Huether, S. E., & McCance, K. L. (2017). Understanding pathophysiology (6th ed.). St. Louis, MO: Mosby.

Hammer, G. D., & McPhee, S. J. (2019). Pathophysiology of disease: An introduction to clinical medicine (8th ed.). New York, NY: McGraw-Hill Education.

Jacqueline FM, van D., Teus H, K., Albert JM, van W., Cor J, K., & Marieke J, S. (2012). The diagnostic value of the numeric pain rating scale in older postoperative patients. Journal of Clinical Nursing, (21–22), 3018. https://doi-org.ezp.waldenulibrary.org/10.1111/j.1365-2702.2012.04288.x