Individuals can experience trauma from public events at the national level or extremely private ones at the interpersonal level. In this Discussion, you analyze these two types of trauma, describing potential interventions and their effectiveness.
To prepare: Read the DSM-5 section on trauma and stressor-related disorders and review the Learning Resources on PTSD, disaster response, and trauma.
Then search the literature for studies related to an evidence-based intervention used to treat those suffering from trauma and stressor-related issues. Specifically, locate the following:
- One study on treating symptoms resulting from a national traumatic event (e.g., natural disaster, mass shooting)
- One study on treating symptoms resulting from an interpersonal trauma (e.g., rape, childhood sexual molestation, domestic violence)
By Day 3
Post a response in which you address the following:
- Post the APA references for the two studies you located.
- Provide a brief description of the traumatic events, including a summary of how they affected the individuals involved.
- Describe the interventions discussed in the articles and explain how they addressed the psychosocial issues and needs of the individuals affected by the trauma.
- Explain the effectiveness of the interventions, as stated in the articles.
- Analyze and discuss the similarities and differences in the individuals’ needs depending on whether the issues occurred due to a national traumatic event or an interpersonal trauma.
American Psychiatric Association. (2013r). Trauma- and stressor-related disorders. In Diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders (5th ed.). Arlington, VA: Author. doi:10.1176/appi.books.9780890425596.dsm07
American Psychiatric Association. (2013f). Dissociative disorders. In Diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders (5th ed.). Arlington, VA: Author. doi:10.1176/appi.books.9780890425596.dsm08
Schnyder, U., Ehlers, A., Elbert, T., Foa, E. B., Gersons, B. P. R., Resick, P. A., … Cloitre, M. (2015). Psychotherapies for PTSD: What do they have in common? European Journal of Psychotraumatology, 6(1), 281–286. doi:10.3402/ejpt.v6.28186
Smith, J. C., Hyman, S. M., Andres-Hyman, R. C., Ruiz, J. J., & Davidson, L. (2016). Applying recovery principles to the treatment of trauma. Professional Psychology: Research and Practice, 47(5), 347–355. doi:10.1037/pro0000105
U.S. Department of Veterans Affairs. (2017). PE—Prolonged exposure: A safe place. Retrieved from https://www.ptsd.va.gov/apps/AboutFace/therapies/pe.html
Note: On this page, watch the following videos about veteran Frederick M. Gantt’s experience with prolonged exposure therapy for PTSD.
“I had to make a decision”
“What am I running from?”
“I could see it in color”
“The Middle Eastern restaurant”
“I’m in a safe place”
American Psychiatric Association. (2013l). Other conditions that may be a focus of clinical attention. In Diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders (5th ed.). Arlington, VA: Author. doi:10.1176/appi.books.9780890425596.VandZcodes
Goral, A., Lahad, M., & Aharonson-Daniel, L. (2017). Differences in posttraumatic stress characteristics by duration of exposure to trauma. Psychiatry Research, 258, 101–107. doi:10.1016/j.psychres.2017.09.079
McHugh, R. K., Gratz, K. L., & Tull, M. T. (2017). The role of anxiety sensitivity in reactivity to trauma cues in treatment-seeking adults with substance use disorders. Comprehensive Psychiatry, 78, 107–114. doi:10.1016/j.comppsych.2017.07.011
van der Kolk, B., & Najavits, L. M. (2013). Interview: What is PTSD really? Surprises, twists of history, and the politics of diagnosis and treatment. Journal of Clinical Psychology, 69(5), 516–522. doi:10.1002/jclp.21992
University at Buffalo School of Social Work (Producer). (2014b). Episode 141— Tara Hughes: Disaster mental health: An emerging social work practice [Audio podcast]. Retrieved from http://www.insocialwork.org/episode.asp?ep=141