Discussion 1a)

When a company decides to use an outside party to conduct some tasks or projects, the process is called sourcing. Sometimes IT sourcing is a good idea because some companies do not have the resources or team to secure the IT structure. Some of the resources include skilled professionals, expensive equipment to support the structure, and so on. Similarly, Lazarus (2018) mentions that the outsourcing team usually gets the company great deals on prices. Their team has a list of competitive vendors that makes them excellent negotiators, which benefits the company. McKeen & Smith (2015) list some of the things that the managers need to focus on before they process IT sourcing.

They are:

Flexibility: When considering IT outsourcing, an organization needs to consider what kind of values they want and how soon do they want. Outsourcing IT might help them find a better deal, but sometimes it comes with longer response time.

Control: Outsourcing is right for some companies because it is easier for them to monitor if their expectations are meeting or not.

Knowledge Management: Some companies prefer not to outsource IT because they want to train their employees to learn knowledge and retain it. However, it is an expensive choice as it is cheaper to outsource IT and receive its benefits.

Business Exigency: Sometimes, different factors play in business that requires them to follow a non-stand process and employ unique decisions. Most of this time, outsourcing IT is a better deal, as it caters the specific needs of the business. In-house IT usually does not have the capability or the resource to respond to unique, non-standard functions.

1b) The main choice criteria that are required for IT managers to examine for making decision related to IT sourcing are as follows.


Flexibility is key thing that should be viewed while making choice in IT sectors. Flexibility in IT normally refers to scenario where, how speedy the IT functionality can be delivered and what are the capacities of those delivered functionality. It is equally crucial to display these elements of the decision. The great example of sourcing is IT body of workers nowadays. Many organizations have a tendency to hire group of workers from outside the business enterprise i.e. outsourcing or attempt to find the worker inside the company who have the competencies to operate the required task. For this, the part should take delivery of the terms and conditions (McKeen, 2017).


Control refers to the excellent of the delivered IT functionalities. For example, its like checking the performance of the IT workforce that was employed from sourcing. For this, the work done via him has to be correct and should comply with the company requirements. Also, these works have be covered and protection measure need to be applied.

Knowledge enhancement

Knowledge enhancement is very essential procedure for making decision. Knowledge and continued learning are imperative in enterprise and IT. For example, if the outsourced body of workers has executed his venture then it the corporation decisions whether to maintain him or not. But if enterprise opted to hold then it is great to switch his information to every other subordinate who will be enjoyable the position. Knowledge switch is very important, and it will create an normal notion for the new staff to analyses his jobs and responsibilities.

Business Exigency

The world is very dynamic. We may no longer comprehend when the enterprise will upward thrust or fall. It every person duties to be geared up whenever required mainly for IF group of workers as well. It indicates the urgency of the team of workers to the organization. The commercial enterprise and IT wishes need to be the priority for the staffs. There need to usually be a diagram B if layout A doesn’t work. And managers are responsible for making that decision (Moser, 2006).


McKeen, J. D., & Smith, H. (2017). It strategy: issues and practices. Burlington: Prospect Press.

Moser, U., & Vecchia, M. D. (2006). It-Sourcing: Ressourcen & Kosten von It-Diensten effizient managen. Rheinfelden/Schweiz: BPX-Edition.


2a) IT budgeting practices delivering value

Utilization of budgeting tools and techniques

The planning tools help to bind the budget plan to set vital arranging, which will help in conveying values along, prompting further change among the account bookkeeping capacities. The techniques and methods applied will help in interpreting the IT issues in different ways, for example, indicating differences in a single field that will be knowledgeable about different zones. The utilization of inadequate equipment can prompt separate in all the IT capacities in this manner, necessary devices, and connections required. The tools help in binds the financial limits to the IT vital as strategical planning of the company (Batra, 2017).

Practices of budgeting

That is vital to examine and include, and they are as described below. Arrangement of IT money control Finance is the person who participates in the center fund selection of the organization. They help to decide the need for the organization money related worth and structure. Arrangement of the IT account authority makes the organization more grounded as the individual closely works with the top-level administration and deals with the money of the IT (Batra, 2017). A kind of spending plan is required to finish the errand. Budgeting devices and strategies are critical to obtaining capital-related information that guarantees a venture is supported satisfactorily and can complete an internal distributed plan.

Innovation operation

Operational development can affect an organization’s accomplishment and a failure today. Various new companies based on ideas that don’t repeat an already solved problem; however, basically perform adequately, frequently reasonable, or progressively viable methods for making the opportunity. For set up organizations depending on age-old procedures and proven techniques, the requirement for advancement is regularly agonizingly self-evident. In this way, ought to be a different activity for improvement to ensure the organization is going with the pace of the time and changes resulting in a complex world (Batra, 2017).

Financing models

A financing model is a planned and standardized way to deal with building a steady income base that will support an association’s capital projects and administrations. Building up a subsidizing model can help to accomplish money related to firmness and manageability, which is critical to supporting an association’s program technique. No benefits that have explicit knowledge into their Operational development can affect an organization’s expansion and a failure today.

Reducing the complexity of the budget.

Most regular practice organizations try to diminish spending unpredictability and streamline planning methods. Such streamlining enables the executives to gather spending data, decide on delivery selections, and give last focuses in more limited time, at a lower cost, and with less interruption to the organization’s center activities (Verma, 2017). By controlling the number of spending programs that are required and by institutionalizing planning methods, organizations step toward streamlining plan. Another critical approach is to limit the measure of detail retained for the reports used to create spending plans.


Batra, Roopali & Verma, Satish. (2017). Capital Budgeting Practices in Indian Companies. IIMB Management Review. 29. 4. 10.1016/j.iimb.2017.03.005.


Nguyen, Dai & Weigel, Christine & Hiebl, Martin. (2018). Beyond Budgeting: Review and Research Agenda. Journal of Accounting & Organizational Change. 14. 314-337. 10.1108/JAOC-03-2017-0028.


2b) IT Budgets plays an important role in initiating any project in firm planning, most of the companies choose technology implementation in their business activities. The persons who are not a part of IT technologies can take more time to prepare an IT budget. It is a challenging task for individuals who are non-IT. The following are the IT budget practices are

Identify high objectives in business: It is required to maintain the high yielding business objectives, where the stakeholders in the business should have awareness and makes high returns in the project. The objectives are performed consistently for more profits (Nouri & Parker, 2018).

Identifying infrastructure: Before initiating any project, it is necessary to analyze and identify to what extent resources are used in the firm. The project should be executed with proper resources and infrastructure. It also needs to define the project environment with appropriate characteristics.

Analyzing process: This step includes how to allocate the resources to the project tasks. Choose precise infrastructure and technological aspects of the project (Smith, 2014).

Identifying the product services: In the case of software applications, it is necessary to show the products and their services in the market. So, that it enables to identify the products by the users.

Project Effort Estimation: This phase plays an essential role in the organizations to determine the project budget estimations in terms of money, time, machine, and human power.

Identifying risk factors: While performing any budget plans in the business activities. Risks incidents need to identify and prevent it by ensuring more risk management techniques (Goetz, 2017).


Goetz, K. H. (2017). How Do International Organizations Put Together Their Budgets? Latest Thinking.

Nouri, H., & Parker, R. (2018). The relationship between budget participation and job performance: The roles of budget adequacy and organizational commitment. Accounting, Organizations and Society, 23(5-6), 467–483.

Smith, C. (2014, December 26). Create a Budget Plan That Actually Works: 3 Steps to Take. Retrieved from https://www.huffpost.com/entry/create-a-budget-plan-that_b_6052050.


3a) This contemporary world is a challenge for every single organization on implementation on the execution of their various risk assessments and managing their problems efficiently by overcoming understanding their organization strategies and their objectives and goals. But most companies face a lot of challenges in understanding their organization’s uncertainty and not able to monitor and manage their risk tolerance (Marian, 2012). Most of the organization’s requirement management team will be focusing on their investments and make sure the market values should not come down and keep it safe. Also, in terms of market capturing, a set of the theme will be forcing on their competitors and their changes so that perspective likely changes can be done just to overcome the risks.

We are some of the techniques that can help an organization in enabling strategies for developing use for risk management techniques and capabilities.

Enterprise risk management (ERM): the organization plan in strategic and their consistency in the database and data warehouse and make various collective changes executive uphold organization rules and relations. Dirham is considered to be one of the crucial and focused on the execution process, and study changes are made for the reader’s approaches.

Organizations need to resolve in building up the risk culture. Every organization has its own culture in approaching the rest and problem their administrations with tend to move towards the goal (Marian, 2012). The executive that makes some significant changes in the board to eliminate the risk and work on risk assessment and link up the existing rest to uninstall Oracle challenges to understand the value. This provides a clear understanding of the organization’s executive risk practices approach.

Risks need to be covered: The set of team works on multiple observations and evaluations based on the priority to evaluate the more significant challenges and response organization (Marian, 2012). All the probabilities and combinations casual be analyzed to keep the organization safe and their data safe from the wrong hands.

Reporting the risks: every organization rests on challenges which have been identified are need to be noted and store in the database to stop this challenges and risks can be reviewed and analyzed whenever it in the future days it is the goal of a risk manager and the team to keep track of everything and any minute changes required can be analyzed with historical data.


Laurentis, Giacomo & Mattei, Jacopo. (2009). Lessors’ recovery risk management capability. Managerial Finance. 35. 860-873. 10.1108/03074350910984728.


Carcary, Marian. (2012). Developing a framework for maturing IT risk management capabilities. 6th European Conference on Information Management and Evaluation, ECIME 2012.

Chao, Yan. (2014). A Study of the Coupling Degree between the Profitability and Risk Management Capability of Commercial Banks. British Journal of Economics, Management & Trade. 4. 1723-1735. 10.9734/BJEMT/2014/11164.


3B) Discuss about the actions that could lead to the development of effective risk management capabilities.

Effective ERM calls in for a process that is robust and entails majority of the risks which can cause a failure and an excellent remedy measure in place for it. The vital elements of the risk management program entail: culture, process, infrastructure and integration. These components are adaptable.

In competitive environments for business, all companies should implement a process for managing various risks effectively to accomplish their objectives. The following action can help in building an effective ERM program.

Creating a risk culture – An organization’s risk culture must support risk management with a tone that references the significance of managing different risk. A risk culture includes risk management to official communications and shows some positive risk management behaviors.

Identifying the risks – organization’s risks can be easily identified using different techniques like surveys, facilitated workshops and interviews and must include some emerging events and risks which may bring some negative consequences to a business.

Determining the risk appetite – creating a risk appetite help the workers to understand different risks an organization is willing to take and also, helping the management to align the perceptions on risks before they happen.

Performing risk assessment – assessing the enterprise risks can prioritize risks across an organization, whereas identifying the main threats, determining the correct responses to different risks and driving the process of monitoring various risks.

Monitoring and reporting risks – the risks with higher possibility should be closely monitored. Reporting risks comprehensively is vital to know the management action required.

Integrating ERM program decision-program – the program should be into the daily business decisions and activities, with the risk managers incorporated at the beginning of strategy setting and information about the risk shared across an organization.


McKeen, J. D., & Smith, H. A. (2015). IT strategy: Issues and practices. Pearson Higher Ed.


4a)Implementing Information Management

Many of the different types of stages are required in the management of the information from some of the principles. The policies of the information technology are not exciting but it was necessary for the foundation of the management of the security system (Folinas, 2019).

It must be more complicated but not to be too wordy. The businesses are unique and the policies of it must match their culture and it’s standard priorities in the particular applications of the information management (Ping Lin. (2019). Design and Implementation of Financial Accounting Information Management System of Shipping Companies Based on ERP. Journal of Coastal Research, 2019).

They are having some of the stages that are included with different types of methods. The recovery of the disaster is more active and particular steps are required for the management (Sembiring, 2019).


Folinas, D., Aidonis, D., & Achillas, C. (2019). Modeling a Humanitarian Logistics Information System’s Processes and Information Needs. International Journal for Traffic & Transport Engineering, 9(3), 320–328. https://doi.org/10.7708/ijtte.2019.9(3).06

Ping Lin. (2019). Design and Implementation of Financial Accounting Information Management System of Shipping Companies Based on ERP. Journal of Coastal Research, 94, 470–474. https://doi.org/10.2112/SI94-093.1

Sembiring, J., & Wiharni, F. (2019). Risk assessment of information production using extended risk matrix approach. Telkomnika, 17(3), 1324–1337. https://doi.org/10.12928/TELKOMNIKA.v17i3.10050

4b) Information management is an important part of an organization. It helps for encouraging a knowledge driven culture. The important steps for implementing the information management system is as follows

Establishment of the objectives

The important part of implementation is defining and selecting the tool. It includes establishing important objectives of the information management system and setting short term and long-term objectives. It helps for seeking appropriate validation and create the bigger picture.

Preparing for change

The second stage of implementation is more than merely applying technology. It is related to involvement with cultural change and the perception of the employees towards sharing knowledge and development. The common problem is related to increasing the information sharing and management. It promoted the structure and bringing valuable changes for effective information management. (Simmons, 2019)

Defining high level process

This is important for facilitating effective management of the information system of the organization and developing detailed procedures. There are several activities which part of the stave are including knowledge strategy, creation, identification, validation, trader, maintenance, reporting, measurement. (Mohajan, 2017)

Determination of the technology needed

This is a stage which helps to understand the process and the criteria. It helps to prioritize the knowledge management and technological needs. Assessment of current state is important, and it helps to solve the problem of the business and understand the gap. Typical assessment helps for understanding the gaps identified.

It is important for organizations to have their own system. Jennings pointed out that it is important to understand the resource and the needs. It is necessary to prepare for resource acquisition and training effectively.


Mohajan, H. K. (2017, Feb 24). The Roles of Knowledge Management for the Development of Organizations. Retrieved from https://www.researchgate.net/publication/314063315_The_Roles_of_Knowledge_Management_for_the_Development_of_Organizations

Simmons, R. (2019, Aug 26). 8 Steps to Implementing a Knowledge Management Program at Your Organization. Retrieved from https://edge.siriuscom.com/strategy/8-steps-to-implementing-a-knowledge-management-program-at-your-organization


5a)IT managers groups collectively had the following recommendations for IT leaders:

1. Focus- Distinguish explicit issues and afterward use information as well as online networking to settle them. Pioneers should search for the greatest play they can get, either on the top or primary concern. Start strategically and use examples of overcoming adversity to show how web-based social networking/large information can fit into the organizational strategy.

2. Develop business-savvy IT staff and support improvement practices, for example, shadowing and colocation. Colocating business insight conveyance bunches from IT in the specialty units and building up a business-drove administration structure for information and online life prioritization ventures are best practices. These steps will enable IT to focus on foundational components such as, standards, metadata, and data models, while business can focus on delivering intelligence.

3. Become a “data factory” with supportive methodologies and practices and an optimized ecosystem of advanced and traditional data technologies. Work to improve information quality, ease of use, and coordination. Explain obligations regarding information and deal with the contentions between security, protection, and consistence prerequisites and information delivery. Finally, CIOs should consider reorganizing to facilitate the convergence of operational with decision support data, and unstructured with structured data.

4. Listening and engaging. Ensure the company is listening to its customers and others to find out their concerns and interests. Build deliverables that will engage customers with the company and provide superior customer service.

5. Consider hiring a graphic designer. This will support IT in developing intuitive and easy interface designs and efforts to move to mobile devices.

6. Support actions that improve use. Communicate the link between use and value to keep teams focused on usefulness and ease of use in social media/big data applications.

5b) IT managers groups collectively had the following recommendations for IT leaders.


Identify specific issues and then use data and/or social media to solve them.

Develop business-savvy IT staff

Encourage development practices such as shadowing and colocation. Expertise promote business–IT rotation programs and hire power users into IT. Integrating business intelligence delivery groups from IT in the business units and developing a business-led governance structure for data and social media prioritization projects are good practices. These will enable IT to focus on foundational components such as, standards, metadata, and data models, while business can focus on delivering intelligence.

Become a “data factory”

It promotes methodologies and methods, and an integrated data management environment. Work to improve the quality of the data, accessibility and integration. It involves data obligations and handles the conflicts between protection, privacy, enforcement and information delivery requirements.

Listening and engaging.

Ensure the organization listens to its customers and others to find out about their issues and desires. Create deliverables that involve the firm’s clients and provide superior customer service.

Consider hiring a graphic designer.

This will help IT develop intuitive and easy interface designs and move to mobile devices.

Support actions that improve use.

Communicate the link between use and value in order to keep teams focused on usefulness and ease of use in social media / big data applications.


IT Strategy Issues and Practices THIRD edition James D. McKeen • Heather A. Smith