> ProMED Digest, Vol 91, Issue 53

   1. PRO/AH/EDR> Avian influenza (12): Czech Republic (VY) >      backyard    poultry, HPAI H5N8, OIE (promed@promedmail.org) >   2. PRO/AH/EDR> Lassa fever – West Africa (03): Nigeria >      (promed@promedmail.org) >   3. PRO/PL> Internal fruit rot, capsicum – Australia: call for >      samples (promed@promedmail.org) > > > ———————————————————————- > > > From: promed@promedmail.org > Subject: PRO/AH/EDR> Avian influenza (12): Czech Republic (VY) >    >    > Content-Type: text/plain; charset=UTF-8 > > > AVIAN INFLUENZA (12): CZECH REPUBLIC (VYSOCINA) BACKYARD POULTRY, HPAI > H5N8, OIE > ******************************************************************************** > A ProMED-mail post > <http://www.promedmail.org> > ProMED-mail is a program of the > International Society for Infectious Diseases > <http://www.isid.org> > > Date: Mon 20 Jan 2020 > Source: OIE, WAHID (World Animal Health Information Database), weekly > disease information 2020; 33(04) [edited] > <https://www.oie.int/wahis_2/public/wahid.php/Reviewreport/Review?page_refer=MapFullEventReport&reportid=32993> > > > Highly pathogenic avian influenza, Czech Republic > ————————————————- > Information received on [and dated] 20 Jan 2020 from Dr. Zbynek > Semerad, Director General, State Veterinary Administration, Veterinary > Administration, Prague, Czech Republic > > Summary > Report type: Immediate notification > Date of start of the event: 17 Jan 2020 > Date of confirmation of the event: 17 Jan 2020 > Reason for notification: 1st occurrence of a listed disease > Manifestation of disease: clinical disease > Causal agent: Highly pathogenic avian influenza [HPAI] virus > Serotype: H5N8 > Nature of diagnosis: clinical, laboratory (basic), necropsy > This event pertains to a defined zone within the country. > > New outbreaks (1) > Summary of outbreaks > Total outbreaks: 1 > Outbreak location: Stepanov nad Svratkou, Zdar nad Sazavou, Vysocina > Date of start of the outbreak: 17 Jan 2020 > Outbreak status: resolved on 18 Jan 2020 > Epidemiological unit: backyard > Total animals affected > Species / Susceptible / Cases / Deaths / Destroyed / Slaughtered > Birds / 15 / 6 / 6 / 9 / 0 > Affected population: Death of 6 hens out of a total of 12. The farm > also kept 3 ducks. > > Outbreak statistics [rates apparent, expressed as percentages] > Species / Morbidity rate / Mortality rate / Case fatality rate / > Proportion susceptible animals lost* > Birds / 40 / 40 / 100 / 100 > *Removed from the susceptible population through death, destruction, > and/or slaughter > > Epidemiology > Source of the outbreak(s) or origin of infection: Unknown or > inconclusive > > Control measures > Measures applied: vaccination permitted (if a vaccine exists); no > treatment of affected animals > Measures to be applied: movement control inside the country; > surveillance within containment and/or protection zone; traceability; > official disposal of carcasses, by-products and waste; stamping out; > control of wildlife reservoirs; zoning; disinfection > > Diagnostic test results > Laboratory name and type / Species / Test / Test date / Results > State Veterinary Institute (SVI) Prague (National laboratory) / Birds > / reverse transcription – polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) / 17 Jan > 2020 / Positive > > Future reporting > The event is continuing. Weekly follow-up reports will be submitted. > > [The location of the outbreak can be seen on the interactive map > included in the OIE report at the source URL above.] > > — > Communicated by: > ProMED-mail    > <promed@promedmail.org> > > [This immediate notification complements the information already > published in ProMED-mail posting > http://promedmail.org/post/20200119.6897846 > > The previous HPAI H5N8 event in Czech Republic started January 2017 > and was resolved March 2017; 38 outbreaks were reported. The affected > population was domestic bird. See event summary and map at > <https://www.oie.int/wahis_2/public/wahid.php/Reviewreport/Review/viewsummary?reportid=22197>. > – Mod.CRD > > HealthMap/ProMED map available at: > Czech Republic: <http://healthmap.org/promed/p/110>] > > [See Also: > Avian influenza (11): Czech Republic (JK) poultry, HPAI H5N8 > http://promedmail.org/post/20200119.6897846 > Avian influenza (09): Hungary (HB) poultry, HPAI H5N8, OIE > http://promedmail.org/post/20200116.6892603 > Avian influenza (08): Romania (MM) poultry, HPAI H5N8, OIE > http://promedmail.org/post/20200115.6890556 > Avian influenza (07): Hungary (KE) poultry, H5N8, OIE > http://promedmail.org/post/20200113.6887610 > Avian influenza (05): Slovakia (NI) backyard poultry, H5N8, OIE > http://promedmail.org/post/20200111.6884061 > Avian influenza (03): United Kingdom (Northern Ireland) poultry, > suspected, RFI http://promedmail.org/post/20200108.6877259 > Avian influenza (02): Poland (LU, WP) poultry, HPAI H5N8, spread > http://promedmail.org/post/20200106.6874145 > Avian influenza (01): Poland (LU) poultry, H5N8, OIE > http://promedmail.org/post/20200102.6867443 > 2019 > —- > Avian influenza (33): Israel (HZ) poultry, HPAI H5N8, OIE > http://promedmail.org/post/20190425.6439824 > Avian influenza (19): Iraq (BA) HPAI, poultry, H5N8, OIE > http://promedmail.org/post/20190325.6385716 > Avian influenza (13): Iran (EA) HPAI, poultry, H5N8, spread, OIE > http://promedmail.org/post/20190314.6365229 > Avian influenza (10): Pakistan (Islamabad) wild bird, HPAI H5N8, OIE > http://promedmail.org/post/20190227.6339643 > Avian influenza (07): Namibia (KA) wild bird, HPAI H5N8, OIE > http://promedmail.org/post/20190214.6316883 > Avian influenza (05): Kuwait (FA) HPAI, pet birds, H5N8, OIE > http://promedmail.org/post/20190207.6305342 > Avian influenza (01): Iran (MN) HPAI, poultry, H5N8, spread, OIE > http://promedmail.org/post/20190108.6248574 > Avian influenza (113): Iran (EA) HPAI, poultry, H5N8, OIE > http://promedmail.org/post/20181213.6206812 > Avian influenza (112): Iran (TE) HPAI, poultry, H5N8, OIE > http://promedmail.org/post/20181203.6178640 > 2018 > —- > Avian influenza (104): Bulgaria (KK) poultry, H5N8, spread, OIE > http://promedmail.org/post/20181020.6101904 > Avian influenza (102): Bulgaria (PD) poultry, H5N8, OIE > http://promedmail.org/post/20181009.6080595 > Avian influenza (101): Germany, HPAI H5N8, eagle, 2016-2017 > http://promedmail.org/post/20181008.6077837 > Avian influenza (100): Bulgaria (PD) poultry, H5N8, OIE > http://promedmail.org/post/20181001.6064181 > Avian influenza (43): Bulgaria (DO) poultry, HPAI H5N8 > http://promedmail.org/post/20180307.5670395 > 2017 > —- > Avian influenza (156): Bulgaria, poultry, HPAI H5N8, spread > http://promedmail.org/post/20171107.5428919 > Avian influenza, human (76): Russia, H5N8 > http://promedmail.org/post/20171104.5419594 > Avian influenza (151): Germany wild bird, HPAI H5N8, Bulgaria poultry, > H5, OIE http://promedmail.org/post/20171023.5398822 > Avian influenza (150): Germany (NI) wild bird, HPAI H5N8, regional > alarm http://promedmail.org/post/20171021.5395412 > Avian influenza (146): Italy, north, poultry, wild, HPAI H5N8, spread > http://promedmail.org/post/20171012.5377180 > Avian influenza (133): Germany (ST) wild bird, HPAI H5N8, OIE > http://promedmail.org/post/20170829.5282824 > Avian influenza (130): Switzerland (VD) wild bird, HPAI H5N8, OIE > http://promedmail.org/post/20170818.5257654 > Avian influenza (120): France (NC) HPAI H5N8, poultry, spread > http://promedmail.org/post/20170704.5148229 > Avian influenza (110): UK, England poultry, backyard, HPAI H5N8 > http://promedmail.org/post/20170604.5083412 > Avian influenza (91): Europe (Finland) Africa (Niger) H5N8, wild, > poultry, OIE http://promedmail.org/post/20170414.4970119 > Avian influenza (76): UK (Wales) wildfowl, HPAI H5N8, OIE > http://promedmail.org/post/20170315.4901311 > Avian influenza (60): Europe (Lithuania, Russia) wild birds, HPAI > H5N8, H5, OIE, RFI http://promedmail.org/post/20170227.4868106 > Avian influenza (59): Ireland, HPAI H5N8, swan > http://promedmail.org/post/20170225.4864529 > Avian influenza (40): Portugal (Algarve) wildfowl, HPAI H5N8, OIE > http://promedmail.org/post/20170202.4811961 > Avian influenza (30): Italy (VN) poultry, HPAI H5N8, OIE > http://promedmail.org/post/20170124.4787128 > Avian influenza (16): Europe, HPAI H5, H5N8, wildfowl > http://promedmail.org/post/20170117.4771394 > Avian influenza (11): Ireland (WX) wild bird, HPAI H5N8, new strain, > OIE http://promedmail.org/post/20170111.4759033 > Avian influenza (10): global, H5N8 clade 2.3.4.4, FAO update & > recommendations http://promedmail.org/post/20170111.4758712 > Avian influenza (08): Slovenia, HPAI H5N8, swan > http://promedmail.org/post/20170111.4757155 > Avian influenza (05): Europe, Asia, H5N8, poultry, wild, spread > http://promedmail.org/post/20170109.4752395 > Avian influenza (01): Croatia (VP) HPAI H5N8, 1st report > http://promedmail.org/post/20170101.4736233 > 2016 > —- > Avian influenza (153): Europe, Asia, Africa, H5N8, poultry, wild, > spread, RFI http://promedmail.org/post/20161229.4731583 > Avian influenza (142): Europe, Middle East, Africa, 1st cases, spread > HPAI H5N8 http://promedmail.org/post/20161221.4712786 > Avian influenza (134): Europe, HPAI H5N8, wild, poultry, spread > http://promedmail.org/post/20161214.4699227 > Avian influenza (120): Romania, HPAI H5N8, swan > http://promedmail.org/post/20161130.4665157 > Avian influenza (119): Romania (CT) wildfowl, HPAI H5N8, OIE > http://promedmail.org/post/20161130.4664106 > Avian influenza (106): Europe, wild, poultry, HPAI H5N8, spread > http://promedmail.org/post/20161121.4645059 > Avian influenza (104): Europe (Germany) wild, poultry, HPAI H5N8, > genotyping http://promedmail.org/post/20161119.4641281 > Avian influenza (102): Europe, wild birds, poultry, HPAI H5N8, spread, > control http://promedmail.org/post/20161115.4631139 > Avian influenza (91): Poland (ZP) wild, H5N8, OIE > http://promedmail.org/post/20161108.4614616 > Avian influenza (90): India (KL) poultry, H5N8, OIE, (HR) poultry, > susp, RFI http://promedmail.org/post/20161105.4609424 > Avian influenza (89): Hungary (BE,CS) poultry, wild bird, HPAI H5N8, > OIE http://promedmail.org/post/20161104.4608240 > Avian influenza (79): Russia (TU) HPAI H5N8, migratory birds > http://promedmail.org/post/20161011.4551755] > ………………………………………….crd/ao/lxl > > —————————— > > Message: 2 > Date: Tue, 21 Jan 2020 03:27:55 +0000 > From: promed@promedmail.org > Subject: PRO/AH/EDR> Lassa fever – West Africa (03): Nigeria > To: promed-post@promedmail.org, promed-edr-post@promedmail.org, >    promed-ahead-post@promedmail.org > Message-ID: >    <0100016fc62474d2-f6a84d40-7bbd-4834-be64-411bcc098c8d-000000@email.amazonses.com> >    > Content-Type: text/plain; charset=UTF-8 > > > LASSA FEVER – WEST AFRICA (03): NIGERIA > *************************************** > A ProMED-mail post > <http://www.promedmail.org> > ProMED-mail is a program of the > International Society for Infectious Diseases > <http://www.isid.org> > > Date: Sun 5 Jan 2020 > Source: Nigeria Centre for Disease Control, Lassa Fever Situation > Report (NCDC) [edited] > <https://ncdc.gov.ng/themes/common/files/sitreps/51a4dba0f66b926a46a6ed769617f131.pdf> > > > Key points > Table 1: Summary of current week [01] indicators > Suspected cases (Negative) 98 (80) > Confirmed cases 18 > Deaths (Confirmed cases) 2 > Case Fatality Rate (CFR) 11.1% > Number of States affected: 18 > LGAs affected (Confirmed cases): 11 > > Table 2: Cumulative data compared to previous year (week 1 – current > week [01]) > Suspected cases (Negative) / Confirmed cases / Deaths (Confirmed > cases) CFR > 2019     2020  /    2019    2020 /   2019    2020 /  2019    2020 > 57(32)  98(80) /    25        18   /      7          2    /   28.0%  > 11.1% > > Highlights > > – In week 01, the number of new confirmed cases has increased from 16 > cases in week 52, 2019 to 18. These were reported from 5 states (Edo, > Ondo, Ebonyi, Bauchi and Abia) (Table 3). > > – The number of deaths has decreased. The overall case fatality rate > (CFR) for 2020 is (11.1%) which is lower than the CFR for the same > period during 2019 (28%) (Figure 5). > > – In total for 2020, 5 states have recorded at least one confirmed > case across 11 Local Government Areas. > > – 89% of all confirmed cases are from Edo (38%), Ondo (38%) and Ebonyi > (11%) states. > > – The predominant age-group affected is 11-40 years (Range: over 11 to > 60 years, Median Age: 33 years). The male to female ratio for > confirmed cases is 1:1 (Figure 3). > > – The number of suspected cases has increased and is higher than the > numbers reported in 2019. > > – There was no Health Care Worker infection identified in week 01. > > Figures and tables [available at the source URL above] > > Figure 1 [graph]: Epidemic curve showing number of confirmed Lassa > fever cases by epidemiological week 48, 2019 to week 1, 2020 > > Figure 2 [map]. Confirmed Lassa fever cases in LGAs in Nigeria, > cumulative 2020 to current week > > Figure 3 [map]. Confirmed Lassa fever rate per 100 000 population for > LGAs in Nigeria, week 01 2020 > > Figure 4 [map]. Confirmed Lassa fever cases by states in Nigeria, week > 01 2020 > > Table 3. Confirmed cases by state, current week 2020 with trend > compared to previous week > > Table 4: Key indicators for current week 2020 and trend compared to > previous week, Nigeria > > Figure 5 [graph]: Age and sex pyramid of Lassa fever confirmed cases > for 2020 > > Figure 6 [graph]: Number of confirmed cases with case fatality rate > (CFR) by state, Week 01, 2020 > > Figure 7 [graph]: Number of confirmed cases by epidemiological week, > 2016-2020, Nigeria. > > Notes on this report > Data Source > Information for this disease was case based data retrieved from the > Technical Working Group. > > Case definitions: > > – Suspected case: any individual presenting with one or more of the > following: malaise, fever, headache, sore throat, cough, nausea, > vomiting, diarrhoea, myalgia, chest pain, hearing loss and either > a. History of contact with excreta or urine of rodents > b. History of contact with a probable or confirmed Lassa fever case > within a period of 21 days of onset of symptoms OR Any person with > inexplicable bleeding/hemorrhagia. > > – Confirmed case: any suspected case with laboratory confirmation > (positive IgM antibody, PCR or virus isolation) > – Probable case: any suspected case (see definition above) who died or > absconded without collection of a specimen for laboratory testing > – Contact: Anyone who has been exposed to an infected person or to an > infected person’s secretions, excretions, or tissues within 3 weeks of > last contact with a confirmed or probable case of Lassa fever > – Active State: means where there has been at least one confirmed > case, and contacts within 21 days post exposure > – Case Fatality Rate (CFR) for this disease is reported for confirmed > cases only. > > — > Communicated by: > ProMED-mail Rapporteur Kunihiko Iizuka > > [The 18 new confirmed and 98 suspected cases in week 01 of 2020 > indicate that Lassa fever (LF) virus transmission is continuing and > perhaps accelerating. Nigeria is now entering the period of the year > when fewer cases usually occur, as illustrated in the graph in Figure > 7 (at the source URL above). There has been a peak in case numbers > between weeks 1 and 11 (January-March) over the past 3 years and > probably will be the case again this year (2020). > > Transmission of LF virus occurs when individuals are in contact with > rodent reservoir host excreta or are within healthcare facilities. It > would be interesting to know whether the prevalence of Lassa fever > virus has been increasing in populations of rodent hosts in areas > where human cases are occurring. > > Images of the rodent reservoirs of Lassa fever virus: > _Mastomys natalensis_: > <https://www.inaturalist.org/taxa/45326-Mastomys-natalensis> > _Mastomys erythroleucus_ and _Hylomyscus pamfi_: > <http://punchng.com/nigerias-large-rat-population-threatens-lassa-fever-war/>. > > There is no specific mention in the plans above of public education > for avoidance of contact with these rodents and their excreta. – > Mod.TY > > Maps of Nigeria: > <http://www.un.org/Depts/Cartographic/map/profile/nigeria.pdf> and > <http://healthmap.org/promed/p/62>.] > > [See Also: > Lassa fever – West Africa (02): Nigeria > http://promedmail.org/post/20200107.6876305 > Lassa fever – West Africa (01): Nigeria > http://promedmail.org/post/20200101.6865640] > ………………………………………….lxl/ty/msp/lxl > > —————————— > > Message: 3 > Date: Tue, 21 Jan 2020 03:28:26 +0000 > From: promed@promedmail.org > Subject: PRO/PL> Internal fruit rot, capsicum – Australia: call for >    samples > To: promed-post@promedmail.org, promed-plant-post@promedmail.org > Message-ID: >    <0100016fc624ebe1-c49c56fa-412b-4348-96e3-3aa9eea5c9b2-000000@email.amazonses.com> >    > Content-Type: text/plain; charset=UTF-8 > > > INTERNAL FRUIT ROT, CAPSICUM – AUSTRALIA: CALL FOR SAMPLES > ********************************************************** > A ProMED-mail post > <http://www.promedmail.org> > ProMED-mail is a program of the > International Society for Infectious Diseases > <http://www.isid.org> > > Date: January 2020 > Source: SoilWealth [edited] > <https://www.soilwealth.com.au/resources/articles-and-publications/internal-rot-of-capsicumschillies-call-for-samples/> > > > Internal rot of capsicums and chillies is a major ongoing issue for > Australian growers, typically those in warm, humid growing areas. It > affects both field and greenhouse grown fruit, especially if humidity > is not well controlled. The disease generally affects the seed inside > the fruit rather than the edible portion. > > Although infection is believed to occur at flowering, the disease > usually does not develop until the capsicum/ chilli starts to ripen, > with spread most rapid after harvest. As the disease cannot be > detected from the outside, infected fruit can be sent to market. This > can lead to consignments being downgraded or destroyed, as well as > affecting consumer confidence and purchases. > > Several different fungi can cause the disease, including species of > _Fusarium_ and _Alternaria_. However, it is unclear which is/are the > main organism(s) responsible for this disease in Australia. [To] > identify the causal organism(s) and develop management techniques to > both prevent infection and minimise the risk of sending unacceptable > fruit to market, affected capsicums and chillies [are needed]. > > [A] flyer with instructions on how to collect samples and send [them] > for study [can be downloaded via] > <http://ahr.com.au/wp-content/uploads/2019/12/Flyer-Internal-fruit-rot-of-capsicums-and-chillies-Call-for-samples-FINAL-20191206.pdf>. > > — > Communicated by: > ProMED-mail > <promed@promedmail.org> > > [Internal fruit rot of capsicum crops is considered an increasing > problem worldwide, particularly in glasshouse cultivation. An > incidence of up to 40 percent has been reported in some crops. Some > yield losses occur at the production stage and vary between crops and > seasons. However, since infections generally do not become obvious > until harvest or during postharvest storage, most of the loss for > growers is rejection of whole batches of produce by the trade. > > Fungal species of _Alternaria_, _Fusarium_, _Botrytis_ and > _Colletotrichum_ (anthracnose), as well as occasionally also soft rot > bacteria (such as _Pectobacterium_ spp.) have been reported in > association with these fruit rots in different areas. The pathogens > enter the host by infection of the flowers and do not move from fruit > to fruit. They establish themselves inside developing fruits, > including stalk, base and pulp, or around the seeds. Disease > development is favoured by high humidity and warm temperatures, such > as are present in glasshouses. > > Generally, these pathogens can be spread with contaminated plant > material (including crop debris, transplants, seeds), by mechanical > means (including insect and human activities), wind, water and rain. > Some weeds and volunteer crop plants may serve as pathogen reservoirs. > Disease management may include use of certified clean propagation > material, fungicides, crop rotation and use of cultivars with reduced > susceptibility. Biocontrol with _Trichoderma_ has been shown to be > promising for some of the fungi. > > However, at present there is no effective control method for capsicum > internal fruit rots that is suitable for growers. The research project > reported above will provide information on which pathogens are > involved and which factors lead to high disease incidence in > Australia. The project will thus enable the design of specific > management strategies for these scenarios, but it will also contribute > to the scientific knowledge about the pathogens overall. > > Maps > Australia (with states): > <https://www.interkart.de/media/catalog/product/p/o/pod10th103_103_australia_physical.jpg> > > Pictures > Internal fruit rot of capsicum: > <http://i.imgur.com/TQGgAMi.jpg> and > <https://bit.ly/36i5cWl> > > Links > Additional news stories: > <https://www.hortidaily.com/article/9180227/australian-project-looks-into-capsicum-internal-rot/> > and > <https://ausveg.com.au/articles/capsicum-internal-rot-new-project-and-call-for-samples/> > Information on internal fruit rots of capsicum crops: > <http://ahr.com.au/wp-content/uploads/2015/10/ICP_CapsicumRot_FINAL_Email.pdf> > (with pictures), > <https://apsjournals.apsnet.org/doi/10.1094/PDIS-03-11-0157>, > <https://apsjournals.apsnet.org/doi/abs/10.1094/PDIS.2003.87.1.100C>, > <https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27141754>, > <https://www.tandfonline.com/doi/abs/10.1080/07060660409507157> and > <https://www.researchgate.net/publication/26561363_Biological_and_Chemical_Control_of_Fruit_Rot_in_Greenhouse_Sweet_Peppers_Capsicum_annum_L_Caused_by_Fusarium_subglutinans> > Fungal taxonomy via: > <http://www.indexfungorum.org/Names/Names.asp> > – Mod.DHA] > > [See Also: > 2015 > —- > Buckeye & bacterial blight, tomato, capsicum – India: (HP) > http://promedmail.org/post/20150721.3525025 > 2011 > —- > Alternaria blight, capsicum – India: (HP) > http://promedmail.org/post/20110708.2064 > 2009 > —- > Multiple pathogens, tomato, capsicum, strawberry – India > http://promedmail.org/post/20090622.2284 > 2001 > —- > Haematonectria sp., pepper, fruit rot – New Zealand > http://promedmail.org/post/20011222.3088 > and additional items on the mentioned pathogens in the archives] > ………………………………………….sb/dha/msp/lxl > > —————————— > > List-Unsubscribe: https://join.isid.org/promed/ > > > End of ProMED Digest, Vol 91, Issue 53 > **************************************

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