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The aim of health promotion is to improve the health of not only individuals but also populations through health education. One among other models that ensures health promotion is the Ponder’s health promotion model. This model was developed when Nola Pender noticed that health care professionals only paid attention to treating diseases but didn’t recognize the need for promotion of healthy lifestyles. In 1982 therefore, this model came into existence to provide a framework that helps to understand health promotion behaviors by recognizing the family as the unit of assessment and intervention. Through identification of available resources and fostering resilience among individual family members this theory encouraged behavioral changes that led to promotion of health among family members. The other components of this model that influences behavioral change include; recognizing experiences and characteristics of individuals, understanding behavior-specific cognition and affect and implementing behavioral outcomes (Kwong & Kwan, 2007)

As important as health teaching seems, nurses should also be aware of other variables that are likely to affects patient’s ability to learn. Such variables include; race, ethnicity, disability, sex, sex orientation, environmental threats, poverty levels, access to health care and lack of education. Other factors such as cultural, socio-economic and socio-political influences affect the patient’s experiences while other components like stereotype, biases and other forms of discrimination can limit the healthcare providers’ ability to share relevant health information. Being able to self-analyze and analyze their target populations, health providers can effectively eliminate these barriers to safeguard health promotion strategies (Whitney, 2018)

Through the transtheoretical model, health providers are able to assess the patient’s readiness to change. The different stages involved include; precontemplation, contemplation, planning, action, maintenance and termination. As the providers work with patients through this model, they are able to note any positiveness or unwillingness depending on their participation. If patients turn out to be positive, they are more actively involved in the decision making of their specific tailored care plans and this ultimately leads to effective learning outcomes as they continue in healthy living behaviors (Whitney, 2018)


Whitney, S. (2018) Health Promotion: Health & Wellness Across the Continuum. Grand Canyon University. Retrieved from https://lc.gcumedia.com/nrs429vn/health-promotion-health-and-wellness-across-the-continuum/v1.1/#/chapter/1

Kwong, E. W., & Kwan, A. Y. (2007). Participation in health-promoting behavior: Influences on community-dwelling older Chinese people. Journal of Advanced Nursing, 57(5), 522-534.

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Bandura’s self-efficacy theory of behavior change is a model developed by Albert Bandura that is used to initiate behavioral changes. Whitney (2018) states “He believed that feelings of self-efficacy can lead to competency; in other words, he believed that individuals have the ability to bring about their own outcomes” (Whitney, 2018, para. 30). This model emphasizes the importance of the patient feeling that he/she is capable of making changes that will lead to the desired outcomes. The patient must feel confident in their own abilities to bring about postive outcomes.

Bandura’s model helps in teaching behavioral changes by giving the patients the knowledge needed so that they can feel confident in themselves. Whitney (2018) states “This conceptual theory explains how learning is influenced by repetition, reinforcement, and symbolic modeling.learning” (Whitney, 2018, para. 30). When patients are in doubt of their own capabilities it makes it hard for them to believe that they are capable of attaining the outcome that is desired for them. However, when patients are taught through repetition and reinforcement, they gain confidence in their own abilities and that is what is needed to bring about the desired outcome.

There are many barriers that may affect a patient’s ability to learn. According to Whitney (2018) “Patients’ physical condition, including limited vision and auditory function, mobility, alertness, mental capacity, or high levels of physical pain, may impede learning capability” (Whitney, 2018, para. 18). All of these physical conditions can negatively affect the patient’s ability to learn. There are other barriers, such as language barriers, that can make it a difficult for a patient to learn, so it is imperative that there is a translator available when needed to be certain that the patient understands what is being taught. 

It is important for the nurse to assess the patient to identify their readiness to learn. If a patient is not willing and ready to learn or willing to make the needed changes then the learning outcomes will be negatively affected. The learning outcomes will be positively affected by the patient that is ready and willing to make changes. The patient must be ready to learn and change for the teaching to be successful.


Whitney, S. (2018). Grand Canyon University (Ed). Health promotion: Health & wellness across the continuum. Retrieved from https://lc.gcumedia.com/nrs429vn/health-promotion-health-and-wellness-across-the-continuum/v1.1/#/chapter/1