1_

  1. Each person should have an equal right to the most extensive basic
    liberty compatible with a similar liberty for others.
  2. Social and economic inequalities should be arranged so that they are
    both (a) reasonably expected to be to everyone’s advantage, and (b)
    attached to positions and offices open to all.

To put this in layman terms, the first principle states that everyone should have the same rights. The second principle states that social and economic inequality should be applicable to any type of person and should benefit everyone.  

2_

The basic principle of utilitarianism that is used in the textbook is, “Everyone ought to act so as to bring about the greatest amount of happiness for the greatest number of people.” 

This principle stems from the assumption that human happiness is the ultimate intrinsic reward, and also uses a long term perspective in quantifying happiness in all people.