Discussion 1: Minimum of 100 words. Read both classmates post below and answer the two questions below: 

Þ  Respond to one peer who chose the same form of capital as you and one who chose the opposite form.  

Þ  What are some of the differences and/or similarities between your decisions to choose one form over the other?

1.Khaley- Using research to help you form an opinion, which form of capital (social or human capital) do you feel will have a greater influence over resources accessible to the abused? 

Our textbook, Special Populations in healthcare emphasizes the likelihood that victims of abuse choose a life of isolation, “Abuse victims often allow themselves to become isolated out of shame and a reluctance to be found out.” (Burkholder & Nash, 2013, Section 3.3). This isolation leads to the likely belief that no one is there to help them, or they are unworthy of help. The American Psychology article, Do Social Resources Matter? Social Capital, Personality Traits, and the Ability to Plan Ahead defines social capital as “involving social networks and support structures, community participation, civic and political involvement, trust in people and social institutions, and norms of reciprocity” (Anand & Poggi, 2018, p.347). By building the social capital of abuse victims, you empower them to make the decisions necessary to remove themselves from a toxic situation of abuse. Building of social capital would also, ideally, help to prevent individuals from falling victim to similar situations in the future. It is also mentioned by Anand & Poggi that different aspects of social capital may help to develop economics within certain communities (Anand & Poggi, 2018, p.347). This leads to the belief that by providing proper means of rehabilitation to abused individuals could impact them positively, in turn impacting the community positively.

Discuss which form of capital you would rely on for emotional support and help through difficult times if abused.  Explain your rationale. 

To rely on human capital, described as “measured by the level of completed education, employment status and position, and living conditions” (Burkholder & Nash, 2013, Section 3.5). This form of capital seems to come after the nourishment of one’s social capital. Social capital has more to do with the building of relationships, bonds, and support systems. The textbook, Special populations in healthcare states that there is a “direct causal relationship between poverty and lack of education and reported abuse. This is thought to be due to the additional stresses associated with inadequate housing and food, the perils of dangerous neighborhoods, and increased violence and drug abuse rates in low-income neighborhoods. The risk of abuse increases when the offender has more education and income than the victim, as the disparity in human capital causes a disparity in social status” (Burkholder & Nash, 2013, Section 3.5). This could be used to argue that building both human and social capital could help removed victims from situations of abuse, as well as decrease the likelihood that others in the community fall victim to abuse.

2.Amber-Based on my research and personal experiences, abuse comes in many forms. The World Health Organization (WHO) distinguishes four types of abuse: Physical, sexual, emotional or psychological abuse, and neglect (The World Health Organization, 2020). Abuse is not biased toward any age, sexual orientation, gender, race, marital status, culture, etc. and financial abuse can also be a factor in relationships where the victim is older. It is not uncommon for there to be evidence of multiple kinds of abuse to exist within one case as most go hand-in-hand. For example, if a spouse is being emotionally abused, physical abuse, as well as isolation and financial abuse, would often be found as well.
Human capital is measured by a person’s level of education, their status and
 position at work, and where and how they live. Human capital is important because it helps define a person’s life and where they fit into society. This kind of capital is defined before birth because it begins with the mothers. Where she works, her financial situation, the quality of her prenatal care, her ability to care for the child, etc. all tie into the human capital aspect for the child.

   Social capital is defined as “the measurement of personal relationships in an individual’s life” (Burkholder & Nash, 2013). A person’s social capital is their support system and the strength thereof. A support system is a group of people, mainly consisting of family and friends, who help you in times of need or trouble.

   As a domestic violence survivor, I know that human capital is very little help when you’re being kept prisoner in your own house. It didn’t matter that I had a good-paying job, or that I was well educated. What mattered the most was my social capital. When I was at my lowest and I thought for sure that I would eventually be killed, I had no choice but to call on my family for help and within hours I was pulled out of that situation and led through recovery. My high school diploma didn’t save me, my job didn’t help, it was my family. For abused individuals, having someone in their corner is more valuable than anything because when you’re being emotionally, mentally, and physically abused, you are brainwashed into thinking you aren’t smart enough or strong enough to escape. The abuser makes them believe that they deserve the treatment they’re receiving, and the beatings are their own fault. It takes a village of people, your social capital, to undo the brainwashing and remind them of their self-worth. Those who lack social capital are far more likely to stay in their situation until it’s too late because of the dependency that occurs between the abuser and the victim. Without someone stepping in, they will feel that they have no other choice than to endure the abuse.

Discussion 2: Minimum of 100 words.  Read both classmates post below and answer the two questions below.

Þ  Are there any similarities and/or differences between your communities or states?

Þ  Do you agree or disagree with your peers’ findings on adequacy?

1. Khaley- Select two resources in your community that address issues related to the chronic illness/disability and describe the services offered.

According to the Mayo Clinic, “Type 2 diabetes develops when the body becomes resistant to insulin or when the pancreas is unable to produce enough insulin. Exactly why this happens is unknown, although genetics and environmental factors, such as being overweight and inactive, seem to be contributing factors” (Mayoclinic.org, 2019). This means that risk factors increase the likelihood of developing type two diabetes. Some of these risk factors could be mitigated throughout the community by offering access to quality, affordable food. For women and children under the age of five, there is the option of WIC which provides staple items. For other individuals, they can apply for food stamps as a supplement if they are of low enough income. The community has a specific listing of doctors efficient in managing the chronic illness of diabetes. The local community resources which address the issue of chronic type two diabetes is severely limited. 

Select two national resources that address issues related to the chronic illness/disability and describe the services offered.

There is an education program, National Diabetes Education Program, which provides education on diabetes and resources for the individual as well as their family members to help cope and live with diabetes. This is important and can impact people in high risk environments by providing information and understanding of the importance of a generally healthy lifestyle. Implementing small changes to lifestyle could help to avoid a possibly predetermined disposition to developing type two diabetes. The National Diabetes Prevention Program is “a partnership of public and private organizations working to reduce the burden of type 2 diabetes by building the infrastructure for nationwide delivery of the evidence-based lifestyle change intervention” (Nhim et al., 2019, p. 2). This programs’ primary focus is to support those with type two diabetes, with a secondary focus of preventing diabetes in those with “pre-diabetes markers”. This program is the action version of the previously mentioned education program. By providing support and simultaneous prevention in the same community this program is creating double the amount of outreach, and hopefully helping to avoid expensive medical costs in the future in order to maintain a partially avoidable diagnosis of type two diabetes.

Analyze whether or not the continuum of care services are adequate for the population with the chosen chronic illness/disability.  Explain why or why not.

Upon furr investigation on the New Mexico Department of Health website, I found that while there are many community-based services to be found in New Mexico, none that are in the Gallup area. In fact the closest community services are about an hour away. These services, according to New Mexico Department of Health, consists of “Mental Health, Outpatient services, Residential services for the Chronically Mentally Ill, Restorative Services, Case Management for Developmental Disabilities and Disabled and Elderly Waiver and Foster Grandparents.” (nmhealth.org, n.d.). While many of these services could be helpful to an individual with diabetes, the only services offered in McKinley County (where Gallup is located) which pertain (in some way) to diabetes support are “harm reduction” and “health promotion” services. There are other service provided at this location but there is nothing that serves specifically the diabetic community. In light of that statement, I would say the continuum of care services provided in Gallup, NM in inadequate for individuals suffering from chronic type two diabetes

2. Melashea-The chronic illness that I have chosen is stroke or  the medical term cerebrovascular accident (CVA). This is an unfortunate event that happens when the brain is damaged on blood flow supply is interfered. This causes the cells in the brain to die because  of lack of oxygen. Symptoms of a stroke is muscle weakness on one side of the body the face will droop or can feel numb, difficulty speaking, blurred vision, double vision, or loss of vision all together in one eye. Other symptoms that happen can be confusion, or  difficult swallowing to name a few.

Two resources in my community that address stroke issues is the stroke rehabilitation in the Hospital of Providence. The Hospital of Providence has a rehabilitation program for stroke victims who are stable but because of the stroke have limitations to what they can do physically. After seen and evaluated they get help with their recovery to to help the individual go back to their everyday activities if possible. They also work with the family members of the individuals which is great. The second resource in my community is called Stroke Survivor Club of El Paso. They have meetings for caregivers for educational and emotional support and therapeutic rehabilitation and it’s for anyone in the community who has suffered a hemorrhage stroke or an ischemic stroke.

Two national resources that address stroke is the National Stroke Association that is a nonprofit organization that the goal is to cut down the impact of Strokes. They provide programs that help people understand the treatment prevention rehabilitation and support for individuals who have encountered this illness. The second national resource is the American Stroke Association where  they support healthier living. and  have funding for new research. It also has success stories of people who have had a stroke and continued living their life.

I do think that the services that adequate for the population of stroke victims in my community. I only named two of the resources, but there are plenty more to help victims get through the process and have a speedy recovery to maintain in life and also to educate not just the individual but the family members and or caregivers involved in the individual of life.

2/2/20 @9am Eastern w/ Plag Report