Reply must be at least 200-300 words. For each thread, you must support your assertions with at least 2 citations from sources such as your textbook, peer-reviewed journal articles, and the Bible. 

Field, A. P. (2018). Discovering statistics using IBM SPSS statistics (5th ed.). Los Angeles, CA: Sage.


According to Kleck, Tark and Bellows (2006) it was found that using survey research was the most profound methodology when it comes to data collection in the fields of criminology and criminal justice.  This research method was most used in the areas to obtain society’s reaction pertaining to crime, criminals and general information on crime.  When it came to getting the archival data, this was usually drawn from criminal justice records with statistical data as well.  Interestingly, the most least used application of data collection in these fields was the control groups and experimental groups.  Moreover, the use of secondary analysis with existing data became central to criminological research.  The highest percentage of dataset analysis when it comes to statistics was the use of univariate, bivariate and multivariate statistics. 
Qualitative research applications are usually designed for when a problem exists and there is no clear solution (Paradis, O’Brien, Nimmon, Bandiera & Martimianakis, 2016).  The National Institute of Justice – Office of the Justice Programs – U.S. Department of Justice (1994) had published the article titled, Critical Criminal Justice Issues where they addressed major issues within the criminal justice field to include (1) youth violence, (2) drugs in the community, (3) violence against women, (4) community corrections and (5) three-strikes legislations.  Quite honestly, one of the most pressing issues at present time in the criminal justice system is the overcrowding in our local jails and state / federal prisons.      
Furthermore, Travis, Western and Redburn (2014) discussed the various issues associated with the growth of mass incarceration and analyzed the consequences and causes, which has been in expansion at an alarming rate for the past four (4) decades.  It was found that a rise with prison and jail populations was attributed to an increase in the political punitive era and climate with periods of time in which crime was rising and social change evolved.  This effectively cause a knee-jerk reaction to quickly solve these issues by implementing short sighted policy choices across all branches of government.  This affect caused a significant increase in prison time for minor offenses, intensified drug offense punishment especially at the federal level and overall increased prison sentences.   An excellent video to watch that exemplifies this issue was when President Barack Obama visited a federal prison and talked to several of the inmates.  I’ll attach the weblink below if anyone is interested in watching it.

 A summary of the research behind Travis, Western and Redburn (2014) is that although the use of incarceration has shown evidence to reduce crime other considerations need to be applied like the total effect of incarceration and recidivism.  The experience of prison can have criminogenic effects and inhibit the ability to rehabilitate and renter back into society.  This study used the line graph chart to calculate incarceration rates of crime time, offenses by crime type and state prison admissions, just to name a few.   
Another great video to watch is that of the elected District Attorney in Santa Clara County (CA) Jeff Rosen.  Not too long ago he traveled to Germany and shared his experiences studying and analyzing how the country has been able to reduce crime and uses a clean prison system.  This could be a possible example of the United States to follow in the future.

The Bible talked about research in many verses to include Corinthians 1:26-29 (ESV), “For consider your calling, brothers: not many of you were wise according to worldly standards, not many were powerful, not many were of noble birth.  But God chose what is foolish in the world to shame the wise; God chose what is weak in the world to shame the strong. God chose what is low and despised in the world, even things that are not, to bring to nothing things that are, so that no human being might boast in the presence of God.” 

Kleck, G., Tark, J. & Bellows, J. (2006).  What Methods Are Most Frequently Used in Research
in Criminology and Criminal Justice?  Journal of Criminal Justice. 
Critical Criminal Justice Issues (1994). National Institute of Justice, Office of Justice Programs, 
U.S. Department of Justice. 
Paradis, E., O’Brien, B., Nimmon, L., Bandiera, G. & Martimianakis, M. (2016).  Design:
Selection of Data Collection Methods.  Journal of Graduate Medical Education.
Travis, J., Western, B. & Redburn, S. (2014).  The Growth of Incaceration in the United States:
Exploring Causes and Consequences.  John Jay College of Criminal Justice.